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9 October 2018

Reply CTF 2018 - Crypto1 & Crypto2 Writeup

by mr96

Crypto1 - RoXor (100 pt.)

We’re given a Python code and a file TOP_secret.zip.enc

#!/usr/bin/python2.7

import hashlib, base64, sys


def decriptMe():
    with open("TOP_secret.zip.enc") as f:
        return f.read()

def encryptionKey(k):
    m = hashlib.md5()
    m.update(k)
    key = m.hexdigest()
    return key

def decryption(key, cyphertext):
    plaintext = ""
    k = 0
    for i in base64.b64decode(cyphertext):
        p = ord(key[k]) ^ ord(i)
        plaintext = plaintext + chr(p)
        key += chr(p)
        k += 1
    return plaintext

def encryption(plaintext):
    key = encryptionKey("key")
    print "[*] Key: {}\n[*] Plaintext: {}".format(key, str(len(plaintext)))
    cyphertext = ""
    for i in xrange(len(plaintext)):
        c = (ord(key[i]) ^ ord(plaintext[i]))
        cyphertext = cyphertext + chr(c)
        key += plaintext[i]
    return base64.b64encode(cyphertext)

def check(plaintext):
    if plaintext[-65:] == "6c81d06ac6d2709a81f76a9bf6c3f5933002f00053302447b122260a0ac0c18e\n":
        return True
    return False

def main(key):
    enkey = encryptionKey(key)
    print "[*] Key Encrypted: %s" % (enkey)
    plaintext = decryption(enkey, decriptMe())
    print plaintext[-65:]
    if check(plaintext):
        print "[*] Key Correct! Plaintext:\n %s" % (plaintext)

if __name__=="__main__":
    if len(sys.argv) != 2:
        print 'Give me the key\n Example: %s key' % (sys.argv[0])
        exit(1)
    main(sys.argv[1])

Code Analysis

Attack

What we have to do now is to reconstruct the original file starting from the last 65 bytes and knowing that part of these bytes are also in the key so, basically, we have to do in reverse the encryption process:

def solve():
    cipher = b64decode(decriptMe())
    plaintext = "6c81d06ac6d2709a81f76a9bf6c3f5933002f00053302447b122260a0ac0c18e\n"
    key = "6c81d06ac6d2709a81f76a9bf6c3f5933"
    for i in cipher[:-len(key)]:
        p = ord(plaintext[-len(key)-1]) ^ ord(cipher[-len(key)-1])
        plaintext = chr(p) + plaintext
        key = chr(p) + key
    return key[:32]

the function returns 9dc5616a9df448ce476be9d8dd638a9c; calling the decryption function with this key and redirecting the result to a file gives a zip which, when extracted, gives a text file with the flag: {FLG:Y0yNe3dT0goD33peR!}

Crypto 2 - Something is missing (200 pt.)

In this challenge we are only given a file, without any explanation. The file contains some encrypted data and, using hexeditor, we can see that there are a lot of zeros at the beginning of the file. After some time the organizers gave us an hint: the file is encrypted using RSA. Since we have no informations or public key we assume that the attack does not depend on the modulus: the simpler attack is supposing that the file has been encrypted with and a very large modulus, so taking the cube root will basically give us the flag.

from Crypto.Util.number import bytes_to_long
from binascii import unhexlify

def long_to_bytes (val, endianness='big'):
    width = val.bit_length()
    width += 8 - ((width % 8) or 8)
    fmt = '%%0%dx' % (width // 4)
    s = unhexlify(fmt % val)
    if endianness == 'little':
        s = s[::-1]
    return s

def cube_root(n):
    lo = 0
    hi = n
    while lo < hi:
        mid = (lo + hi) // 2
        if mid**3 < n:
            lo = mid + 1
        else:
            hi = mid
    return lo

r = open("encrypted", "r").read()
r_num = bytes_to_long(r)
sqrt3 = cube_root(r_num)
print(long_to_bytes(sqrt3))

The script returns }!Erc33Qre0Z:TYS{ :ryvs CVM rug ebs qrra hbl qebjffnc rug fv fvuG: reverting the string and decrypting with rot-13 gives the flag {FLG:M0reD33peR!}.

tags: crypto  rsa  xor  rot-13  classic